Saturday, May 23, 2020

Comparison of Miss Havisham and Lady Macbeth Essay

Throughout both ‘Great Expectations’ and ‘Macbeth’ surroundings are used to influence and define Miss Havisham’s and Lady Macbeth’s characteristics. These surroundings are not only physical, but also psychological; found in their relationships and trauma from past events. Although both women are presented in different forms Lady Macbeth is also strongly influenced by her physical surroundings. Like Miss Havisham, her home is metaphorical of her characteristics. She lives in a great castle from which we never see her leave. Like the castle she first comes across as strong, powerful and intimidating with strong walls, yet we later see these crumble and leave her as nothing but a wreck of what she used to be. The castle also lures King†¦show more content†¦She also goes on to call on spirits ‘Come, you spirits’, this gives the impression that she believes in the superstitious, and not only that but sees it as a source of help. She does not fear it like the vast majority of people in the 1600s. Miss Havisham is also greatly influenced by her psychological and emotional surroundings. The paramount influence over her life was her relationship with Compeyson, as this is what led to her incessant need for revenge, strained relationship with Estella and subversion from conformity. The enormous impact that Compeyson jilting Miss Havisham had on her perception of love can be seen when she describes love as ‘Giving up your soul to the smiter-as I did’. The use of the word smiter emphasises just how deeply she was hurt; her heart was not just broken, but deliberately crushed. She never heals from this pain so dedicates her whole life onwards to breaking men’s hearts. She even goes to the extent of raising Estella to do this ’’You can break his heart.’’. Yet she shows signs of regretting bringing Estella up ‘so hard and thankless’ and robbing her of the ability to love, like Compeyson did to her. This failing relationship leads her further into depression, but does not stop her need to inflict pain on Pip, suggesting she cannot

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Oracle Free Essays

How is the IKEA operations design different from that of most furniture retail operations? IKEA is known as one of the world’s largest furniture retailer that focuses highly on cost control, operational process and product development. IKEA differentiates itself from most furniture retailers by offering a wide range of well designed array of home furniture at very attractive prices that remain affordable to a large group of diverse customers. There are some unique features of IKEA as compared to most furniture retail stores (IKEA, 2012) Self – Service’ (minimal service or influence from sales person) Details of all products are made ubiquitous in the showroom thus making sales assistance unnecessary which this in return helps to reduce the hiring cost of labor. We will write a custom essay sample on Oracle or any similar topic only for you Order Now Layout of Products (product exposure) Ikea stores are designed in a one-way ‘walk-through layout’ that requires customers to be exposed to the entire products which is unlike from most furniture retail stores where by customers may choose to go directly to the section they preferred. Hence, the flow allows increased efficiency from entering the showroom, selecting of products to lastly making payments. Furniture Most of Ikea products are self – assembled products, this helps to reduce the costs of shipping as higher volume of bulk packaging can be done. Unlike most furniture retail stores where free delivery and assembly is given, additional charges apply if fixing of product is required by the customers. Lastly, four dimensions of operations (Volume, Variety, Variation and Visibility) will be used to determine the differences between IKEA operations to that of most furniture retail stores. High Volume – IKEA’s operations are of very large scale, major land space and huge car parks are developed to cater to all customers, everything about the design of IKEA’s operations encourages high volume of throughput as compared to most furniture retail stores (IKEA, 2012). High Variety of product but Low Variety of service – The variety of products showcase in IKEA is much more than most furniture retail stores, from small items such as kitchen appliances to large items such as tables. However, as far as the variety of service is concerned it is relatively narrow. Most products are self – assembled and there is no sales person to provide any service to the customers, leaving themselves to figure out and make their own decision for the purchase. High Variation on demand – Public holidays and weekends usually attracts more crowded as compared to normal week days, hence result in high variation. However, there will not be any difficulty of getting part-time staff into IKEA during the peak period as the operations in IKEA are well designed. Unlike most retail store which require staff with specific expertise that requires time to hire. Low Visibility – Customer contact is high in certain extend, but overall it is lower than most furniture retail stores considering most of the things are done (‘self-service’) solely by the customers from the start till it reaches the point of payment where it is also a standardized process by IKEA. This ultimately reduces the costs of the transaction as far as IKEA is concerned. What do you think might be the major problems in running an operation like IKEA? Having such huge variety and high volume of product being transacted, it may be tough for them to manage the inventory for all items. Shipping of high volume bulk items may take time and IKEA may face stock-out period, hence their operations planning has to be done and calculated accurately. As all sales are done on ‘self-serviced’ manner, it may not create a great shopping experience as compared to most retail stores where sales person are able to cater a more specific and unique first-hand experience to all customers to create loyalty. Lastly, IKEA being the largest furniture retailer require a lot of natural material such as wood, which may harm the global environment (IKEA, 2012). Reference IKEA (2012) Our Vision and Business Idea. Available at: http://www. ikea. com/ms/en_SG/about_ikea/the_ikea_way/our_business_idea/index. html (Accessed 29 January 2013) How to cite Oracle, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Occupational Health Hazards

Question: Write a short discussion ondiscussion about the occupational health hazards while working in any chemical laboratory. Answer: This report provides a discussion about the occupational health hazards while working in any chemical laboratory. It provides a full description of the workplace where the workers work and also the duration of their stay in the workplace. The occupational health hazards chosen includes health problems like cancer, cardiovascular diseases and many other diseases involved while workers are working in the chemical laboratory. There are many risks like biological, potential and chemical hazards associated with working in chemical laboratories. It describes the measures taken by the management to control such hazards and the effects it has on minimizing the hazards. It explains a detailed care plan process developed for determining the patients health goals and outcomes of the program. Working in the chemical laboratory in any industry or factory serves to be very harmful in determining anyones health. Many of the workers are employed in laboratories all over the world. The environment of the laboratory can serve to be highly harmful to the workers working over there. Workers are always exposed to several kinds of toxic elements that can cause potential health hazards which may be due to chemicals, biological, physical and radioactive hazards. Additionally they can also lead to other factors such as musculoskeletal stress. Keeping these in mind, laboratory safety has been given muc importance by several local, state and federal regulations. The type and extent of the hazard caused due to the chemicals depend on the duration of their exposure to the harmful environment and also the location of working (Armarego and Chai, 2013). The health hazards include the development of life-threatening diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and much more. By identifying the associated hazards the potential problems and diseases caused by them can be highly regulated and minimized. The most common biological hazards include exposure of the worker to bl ood borne pathogens by the use of needle sticks, pipettes, glass slides or other equipments. It also involves exposure to airborne pathogens caused by direct contact with infectious patients (Ugranli et al, 2015). The pathogens are found in tissues as well as excretory materials like faeces, so the chances of exposure to them increase and hence the disease prevalence also increases. Aim of the occupational health program The goal of the designed health program is to determine the hazardous chemicals and implementation of the ways to solve the potential risks faced by the workers due to these chemicals. The risk assessment is done to identify the workers who are at the risk of exposure, the sources that cause the risk, and the efficiencies of existing control measures. Risk assessment can be of various types and determination of the kinds too becomes necessary (Ugranli et al, 2015). A basic assessment contains all the information on the safety data sheets. It also contains information as to whether the hazardous chemicals are under control or not. While in the generic assessment, the assessment of a particular area is focused on. Risk assessment can be done by grouping the professionals in a group that performs similar work. The routes of entry of the chemicals should be determined for understanding the potential risks due to exposure. Determination of the workers who are directly or indirectly relate d to the developmental risks can even be helpful in finding the ways to solve the problems (Turgeon 2015). Chemical laboratories and its environment The chemical laboratory is the most hazardous place to work for any human being. The laboratory which we are focusing upon being the laboratories using diacetyl as catalyst in manufacturing flavorings. The flavors need to be removed as they contribute in forming negative health effects. Though chemicals are found everywhere, laboratories are the place where they are stored, and most of the works are performed there. Many cases of severe lung diseases are found among workers in laboratories where diacetyl is manufactured (Magnavita 2016). The combination of more chemicals helps in increasing the harms. Chemicals may create various harmful elements in the form of dust, liquids, gases and others. Chemical laboratories are present in many institutions, colleges and big pharmaceutical and chemical companies. Chemicals are necessary for the preparation of various products which may be useful and harmful too. The useful products made out of chemicals include bleaching powder and chemical po wders that benefit humans. Bleaching powder helps in purification of water and also helps in cleaning of floors. But handling those chemicals for manufacturing any product is the entirely different thing. As it can be seen that the chemical laboratories are the places where several people work together and perform their functions accordingly (Turgeon 2015). The laboratories are generally established in places which are far and distant from the normal workplaces. It comprises of employees who are above the age of 25 years. The working employees in laboratories are mainly males as males are more preferred for such activities which involve much risk. However, individuals with a prior knowledge in the field or with an experience of at least one or two years are chosen for handling such chemicals. The workers in the chemical laboratories have to work for more than 10 hours a day in under difficult conditions. But in big companies, they need to work for more than 10 hours, and this is the only reasons why the hazards are more prevalent in their cases. Exposure to different chemicals on a regular basis and for a longer duration will surely affect the health conditions of employees exposed to such environment. Frequent exposure to chemicals which are potentially more dangerous can even lead to mutation of the skin which ultimately causes cancer (Scott et al, 2015). In big companies, more number of workers indulges as laboratory technicians. They have to deal with varieties of chemicals in a day.Review and literatureThe Australian National OHS Strategy 2002- 2012 focused on prevention of occupational diseases more efficiently and was among one of their priorities. They identified eight hazards which can be potentially more dangerous. Additionally they also point out that chemical hazards are the prime causes of most deadly diseases like cancer, respiratory diseases and contact dermatitis. It was found that between the years 2000-2001 to 2006-2007 the rates of respirato ry diseases increased along with the rates of occupational cancers. The international labor organization in 1996, reported that chemicals are part of our daily life and are unavoidable (Scott et al, 2015). A report published by World health organization in 2004 states that about 4.9 millions of deaths and 86 million disability-adjusted life years were recognized due to their exposure to selected chemicals.As per an analysis by Safe Work Australia for the session 2006- 2007, it was observed that the 1350 people were found to be influenced by their exposure to chemicals. Out of these, 880 people were affected due to their single contact exposures, 400 were affected due to long-term exposure, and 70 were not designated to any kind of exposure. The major health and safety problems faced by laboratory technicians are due to exposure to toxic, corrosive and flammable chemicals which catch fire easily, using compressed gases, handling blood samples and body fluids that contain infectious a gents (Driscoll et al, 2016). Some physical hazards and also recognized as a use of radioactive materials, lasers, and others (da Silva 2016). The use of cryopreservative agents likes liquid nitrogen and solid carbon dioxide. Working in the same environment and in the same position can also cause problems like back and arm pain. Electrical dangers are also felt while working with electrical instruments and devices. Cutting and itching of skin by exposure to chemicals and by broken glasses. The use of chemical agents in laboratories not only imparts these problems, but it also offers some of the potential dangers to human life (Simoneti et al, 2015). Exposure of a person to pesticides, mercury, carbon monoxide and other chemicals can affect the brain and nervous system. Exposure to mists, welding fumes can affect the regions of eye, nose and throat (Scott et al, 2015). Lungs get damaged due to exposure to acids and welding fumes. Liver damage can also be observed with exposure to vin yl chloride. Bladder harms are caused by exposure to azo dyes. Risk assessment The risks associated while working in laboratories can be assessed by monitoring or conducting surveys in any particular area. The risks can be assessed by observing the primary sources of information which are in the form of Chemical Hygiene Plan in any laboratory. CHP contains the standard procedures for working with specific hazardous chemicals (Magnavita 2016). Material safety data sheets often serve as sources for assessing the risks and evaluation of hazards. These are technical documents that contain basic information regarding any chemical and potential risks. The sheets also explain the toxicity levels and health hazards, including storage and handling procedures. Ethical regulationsThe University of Western Australia has implemented codes that should be followed by all the laboratory workers and are introduced to minimize the chances of development of health hazards to human health. The Universi ty of Australia has several codes. According to this, the people working in laboratories should have to be perfectly trained, informed and supervised. The Western Australian Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984, aims to promote and secure the safety and health of every individual working in any workplace (Mann et al, 2014). Health occupational planThe health occupational health plan for the workers in chemical laboratories includes- identification of the various hazardous chemicals of concern, methods adopted for managing the risks associated with the hazardous chemicals, and determination of the exposure time to that particular chemical. It also involves preparation of a list of dangerous chemicals, maintenance of safety data sheets, assessment of the risks, controlling risks by eliminating hazards by substitution, isolation or using personal protective equipment, enhancing the controlling measures and lastly monitoring the outcomes of the methods implemented (Magnavita 2016).By observing and consulting workers, it can be understood as to whether the standard procedures which are implemented on the workers are efficient or not. The employees are advised to fill up the self- evaluation form so that their working process and duration of exposure can be known. The investigation process is done by determining the rate of hazardous chemicals. It also helps in ascertaining the rate of harm the chemicals might have caused to the workers. The data regarding the accumulation level of the airborne pathogen are determined by a simple static area sampling. The amount of exposure can sometimes be determined by observing the workers. Biological methods of monitoring can be significantly useful for determining the level of absorbance of the chemicals through the skin. One of the ways in which a plan can be implemented is by designing less hazardous laboratory processes and reaction conditions. Use of safer solvents and non- hazardous chemicals will cause less harm. Moreo ver degradation of the hazardous products and by-products which are formed after the completion of any kind of chemical reaction may also beneficial (da Silva 2016). Another advantageous technique may be designing of the experimental setups in a way that can help in reducing cases of injuries, accidents and exposures to laboratory. Additionally, checking the hazardous properties of any substance before its use in any chemical reactions may also be profitable (Lu et al, 2016). The associated risks can be controlled by following the hierarchy of control. The risk can be minimized by methods like substitution, separation and by implementation of engineering controls (Galante et al, 2016). Elimination of the hazard is the first and basic step which will be considered. This can be done by using nails inspite of using chemical based adhesives. Substitution is another method of resolving problems as replacing the hazardous chemical with non- hazardous ones will assist in resolving problems (Connor et al, 2016). It can be done by using less combustible liquids and solvents in place of highly inflammable ones. Isolating the more hazardous chemicals from the less hazardous ones can be an efficient practice for minimizing the exposures to hazardous chemicals (Lee et al, 2016). Methods to minimize the risks of occupational health hazardsThe engineering control methods can also be implemented in the program for minimizing the risks of development of hazards from chemicals. The engineering control process that can be used includes using intrinsically safe electrical equipment in hazardous areas. Local exhaust ventilations can be used to capture airborne contaminants close to the source of generation. Personal protective equipments if used in the workplace can help in minimizing the hazards (Bahr 2014). The equipment includes aprons, footwear, gloves, chemical resistant glass, face shields, and respirators. The more specific control measures include the use of labels and dat a sheets (Bahr 2014). The fire and explosion risks can be controlled by designing buildings in a way that ventilation is present, which can avoid the creation of hazardous atmospheres (Lee et al, 2016). The workers should be advised to follow the programs and ways to minimize the hazards of working in chemical laboratories. The workers should be told to handle the equipment more carefully and using them with more care and attention (Lim 2016). The workers should be reminded every time to use the chemicals very carefully and in proper way avoiding harms. Some measures are adopted as protection against the biological hazards. The methods includes use of own protective equipments such as gloves, respiratory defense, and eye defense which are to be employed depending upon the situation (Connor et al, 2016). Personal Protective Equipments is generally used in association with other protections (engineering and administrative) to provide more defenses to employees. The major forms of Pers onal Protective Equipments are constructed to protect the employees against infectious disease by cracking the groups of infection at the point of entrance or escape of the pathogens (Bahr 2014). This means that all Personal Protective Equipments is framed to minimize exposure by the unique ways of transmission. Exposure through the skin contact route can be minimized by using gloves, gowns, and other protective clothing and help contain the pathogens in the workplace (Driscoll et al, 2016). Implementation of the planOnce the whole occupational program is planned out, it is to be implemented and monitored for evaluating the associated risks. Regular checkups and follow ups of the workers are conducted to ascertain the instructions are followed by the employers are not. This should be done on a monthly basis by having the employees fill the self- evaluation form which asks about the problems faced by the employees and the work habitants. In this way, the employees will also be able t o feel the change brought about by an implementation of the programs and plans. Conclusion As seen from the discussion, the employees working in chemical laboratories face a lot of health issues. The main health issues are- cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and skin problems, such as dermatitis and many others. This issue needs to be considered as the rules and methods set out in the country are not set well. In the recent strategies followed many changes are still there which are to be incorporated. The methods adopted like personal protective equipment, engineering controlled methods, and other methods are playing important roles in eliminating or minimizing the hazards. The employees should be well informed about the ill- effects of using chemicals in laboratories. They should be trained on the correct use of chemicals. The occupational program set out for the observed risk will be regularly monitored by assessing the employees through questionnaires and by assessing the duration of their exposure to chemicals. This would help in minimizing the risks faced by workers wor king in chemical laboratories to a great extent. Reference Armarego, W.L. and Chai, C.L.L., 2013. Purification of laboratory chemicals. Butterworth-Heinemann.Bahr, N.J., 2014. System safety engineering and risk assessment: a practical approach. CRC Press.Connor, T.H., Zock, M.D. and Snow, A.H., 2016. Surface Wipe Sampling for Antineoplastic (Chemotherapy) and Other Hazardous Drug Residue in Healthcare Settings: Methodology and Recommendations. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, (just-accepted), pp.1-33.da Silva, J., 2016. DNA damage induced by occupational and environmental exposure to miscellaneous chemicals. Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research.Driscoll, T.R., Carey, R.N., Peters, S., Glass, D.C., Benke, G., Reid, A. and Fritschi, L., 2016. The Australian Work Exposures Study: Prevalence of Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde. Annals of Occupational Hygiene,60(1), pp.132-138.Galante, E.B.F., Costa, D.M.B., Frana, T.C.C. and Viaro, R.S., 2016. Risk assessment in a chemical laboratory. Occupational Safety and Hygi ene IV, p.105.Lee, C., Jang, E.J., Kwon, D., Choi, H., Park, J.W. and Bae, G.R., 2016. Laboratory-acquired dengue virus infection by needlestick injury: a case report, South Korea, 2014. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 28(1), p.1.Lim, K.F., 2016. Education: Improving laboratory learning. Chemistry in Australia, (Feb 2016), p.36.Lu, M.L., Putz-Anderson, V., Garg, A. and Davis, K., 2016. Evaluation of the Impact of the Revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Lifting Equation. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, p.0018720815623894.Magnavita, N., 2016. Engagement in Health and Safety at the Workplace: A New Role for the Occupational. Promoting Patient Engagement and Participation for Effective Healthcare Reform, p.265.Mann, D.L., Zipes, D.P., Libby, P. and Bonow, R.O., 2014. Braunwald's heart disease: a textbook of cardiovascular medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences.Phillips, J.A., Holland, M.G., Baldwin, D.D., M euleveld, L.G., Mueller, K.L., Perkison, B., Upfal, M. and Dreger, M., 2015. Marijuana in the Workplace: Guidance for Occupational Health Professionals and Employers: Joint Guidance Statement of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses and the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57(4), pp.459-475.Rosner, D. and Markowitz, G., 2016. Educate the Individual... to a Sane Appreciation of the Risk A History of Industrys Responsibility to Warn of Job Dangers Before the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. American journal of public health, 106(1), pp.28-35.Scott, M.G., Rifai, N., Smith, B., Oellerich, M., Panteghini, M., Apple, F., Sikaris, K. and Young, I., 2015. The changing face of laboratory medicine: a more service and less academically oriented profession?. Clinical chemistry,61(2), pp.322-329.Simoneti, C.S., Freitas, A.S., Barbosa, M.C.R., Ferraz, E., Menezes, M.B.D., Bagatin, E., Ar ruda, L.K. and Vianna, E.O., 2015. Study of risk factors for atopic sensitization, asthma, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in animal laboratory workers. Journal of occupational health, (0).Turgeon, M.L., 2015. Linne Ringsrud's Clinical Laboratory Science: The Basics and Routine Techniques. Elsevier Health Sciences.Ugranli, T., Toprak, M., Gursoy, G., Cimrin, A.H. and Sofuoglu, S.C., 2015. Indoor environmental quality in chemistry and chemical engineering laboratories at Izmir Institute of Technology. Atmospheric Pollution Research,6(1), pp.147-153.Woodruff, T.J., Verbeek, J.H., Holloway, A.C., Santesso, N. and Schnemann, H.J., 2016. GRADE: Assessing the quality of evidence in environmental and occupational health.

Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Louis Essays - Louis Kahn, Salk Institute For Biological Studies

Louis Kahn Standing alone against the endless blue sea, the Salk Institute by Louis I. Kahn is one of a kind. "Louis Kahn's Salk Institute for Biological Studies on the Pacific coast near La Jolla aspires within its own spirit to an order achieved through clarity, definition, and consistency of application"(Heyer 195). To many, this magnificent structure may seem out of place, but it works well with the surrounding environment because of the spatial continuity that it possesses. The relation to the site, the tectonic characteristics, and the ideas of servant versus served, combine to achieve a great sense of order in the Salk Institute. Many of the ideas that went into the construction of this design are still utilized in architecture today. Kahn's modern design takes full advantage of the atmosphere by opening up a broad plaza between two research and lab wings providing a view of the beautiful Pacific Ocean and the coastline (Ghirardo 227). The laboratories are separated from the study areas, and each study has a view of the magnificent blue Pacific with horizontal light pouring in. This allows scientists to take a break from their frantic studies and clear their minds with a breath-taking view. In relation to this idea Kahn stated, "I separated the studies from the laboratory and placed them over the gardens. Now one need not spend all the time in the laboratories" (Ronner 158). The two lab wings are symmetrical about a small stream that runs through the middle of the courtyard and feeds into the ocean. This steady ban of water flowing towards the sea symbolizes the success that human can accomplish. I thought this idea had a worthy presence, considering the Salk Institute is one that promotes research and study. Thus, the courtyard is considered the faade to the sky. Kahn didn't need to dress up the land around the plan because the Salk Institute is the landscape. It is one with the site. Kahn incorporates the use of tectonic characteristics within this design in a number of ways. The materials used included wood, concrete, marble, water, and glass, and they all contributed to the Brutalist notions and simplistic plan. He believed that concrete was the stone of modern man, and therefore it was to be left with exposed joints and formwork markings (Ronner 164). Weathered wood and glass combined with the concrete to construct the outside surface. Kahn also integrated mechanical and electrical services into this architecture, which gave laboratories a new concept. These technologies were hidden in the design to continue Kahn's search for order in the plan. Ceiling and column ideas were also combined to separate the air that you breathe from the air that you throw away. Interlocking volumes are present throughout the structure, all the way down to the details on the furniture (Ghirardo 227). The servant and served spaces in the Salk Institute create a consistent order, which is evident throughout the design. The laboratories act as the served spaces, while the servant spaces are represented by the studies. All of the ideas are initiated in the studies or offices, and the research is carried out in the labs. Therefore, the servant spaces serve the served spaces. These are not the only ways that the served and servant concepts are involved in the institute. An idea that is still used to this day in all forms of architecture is the way the Kahn guides the utilities through the building in an unnoticeable manner. "Served spaces and servant spaces are entirely integrated" (Scully 36). Kahn also made a service floor under each laboratory which established a very flexible space, and this concept is still used today (Frampton 245). Overlooking the great Pacific, this is no ordinary office building. Louis Kahn used a combination of modern architecture with much simplicity to produce arguably his greatest feat as an architect. A lot of concepts that he initiated in this plan are still in use all over the world today. The relation to the site, the tectonic characteristics, and the ideas of servant versus served, all work together to achieve a great sense of order in the Salk Institute. Bibliography Frampton, Kenneth. Modern Architecture: A Critical History. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1992. Ghirardo, Diane. Architecture After Modernism. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1996. Heyer, Paul. American Architecture: Ideas and Ideologies in the Late Twentieth Century. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. Pg. 195. Ronner, Heinz. Louis I. Kahn: Complete Works 1935-1974. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1997. Pg.158-165. Scully, Vincent Jr. Louis I. Kahn. Pg. 36-37

Friday, March 6, 2020

55 American English Words Derived from Algonquian Languages

55 American English Words Derived from Algonquian Languages 55 American English Words Derived from Algonquian Languages 55 American English Words Derived from Algonquian Languages By Mark Nichol American English has been enriched by the widespread adoption of words based on vocabulary of Native American tribes, including the many tribes that spoke (and, in some cases, still speak) one of the Algonquian languages of what is now eastern North America. The following is a list of such terms, more or less commonly used, most of which refer to animals or plants or products derived from them. apishamore (Algonquian): a buffalo-hide saddle blanket babiche (Mà ­kmaq): a leather or sinew thong or thread caribou (Mà ­kmaq): a species of large antlered mammal caucus (Algonquian): a group of people who meet to discuss an issue or work together toward a goal; also a verb chipmunk (Odawa): any of various small rodent species that are part of the squirrel family chinquapin (Powhatan): a dwarf chestnut tree or its nut cisco (Ojibwe): a whitefish hackmatack (Algonquian): a type of larch tree, or its wood hickory (Powhatan): a type of tree or its wood, or a cane or switch made of the wood hominy (Powhatan): soaked and hulled corn kernels husky (based on shortening of the Cree word from which Eskimo is derived): a type of dog; the adjective husky is unrelated kinkajou (Algonquian): a Central and South American mammal kinnikinnick (or killikinnick or killickinnick) (Unami Delaware): a mixture of dried leaves and bark smoked like tobacco, or the plant (also called bearberry) from which the materials are taken mackinaw (Menomini): a heavy type of cloth used for coats and blankets, or a coat or blanket made of the cloth, or a type of trout moccasin (Algonquian): a soft leather shoe or a regular shoe resembling a traditional moccasin, or, as water moccasin, a species of snake or a similar snake moose (Eastern Abenaki): a species of large antlered mammal mugwump (Eastern Abenaki): originally, a war leader, but in American slang, a kingpin, later a political independent, or someone neutral or undecided muskellunge (Ojibwe): a pike (a type of fish) muskeg (Cree): a bog or swamp muskrat (Western Abenaki): an aquatic rodent opossum (Powhatan): a marsupial (sometimes possum) papoose (Narragansett): an infant pecan (Illinois): a type of tree, or the wood or the nut harvested from it pemmican (Cree): a food made of pounded meat and melted fat, and sometimes flour and molasses as well persimmon (Powhatan): a type of tree, or the fruit harvested from it pipsissewa (Abenaki): a type of herb with leaves used for tonic and diuretic purposes pokeweed (Powhatan): a type of herb pone (Powhatan): flat cornbread; also called cornpone, which is also slang meaning â€Å"countrified† or â€Å"down-home†) powwow (Narragansett): a Native American medicine man, or, more commonly, a Native American ceremony, fair, or other gathering; also, slang for â€Å"meeting† or, less often, party puccoon (Powhatan): a type of plant, or the pigment derived from it pung (Algonquian): a box-shaped sleigh drawn by one horse punkie (Munsee): an alternate name for a biting midge, a type of fly quahog (Narragansett): a type of edible clam Quonset hut (Algonquian): a trademark for a type of prefabricated structure with an arched corrugated-metal roof raccoon (Powhatan): a type of mammal noted for its masklike facial markings, or the fur of the animal sachem (Algonquian): a chief of a Native American tribe or confederation of tribes; also, a leader in the Tammany Hall political machine sagamore (Eastern Abenaki): an Algonquian tribal chief shoepac (Unami Delaware): a cold-weather laced boot skunk (Massachusett): a type of mammal known for spraying a noxious odor in defense, or the fur of the animal; also, slang for â€Å"obnoxious person† squash (Narragansett): any of various plants that produces fruit, also called squash, that is cultivated as a vegetable; the verb squash, and the name of the ball-and-racquet game, are unrelated squaw (Massachusetts): a Native American woman or, by extension, a woman or a wife; the word is widely considered offensive succotash (Narragansett): a dish of green corn and lima or shell beans terrapin (Powhatan): one of various types of turtles toboggan (Mà ­kmaq): a wooden sled with the front end curved up and, by extension, a downward course or a sharp decline (the activity of using such a sled is called tobogganing); also, a slang term for a winter stocking cap with a pom-pom or a tassel tomahawk (Powhatan): a light ax used as a throwing or hacking weapon; as verb, it means â€Å"use a tomahawk† totem (Ojibwe): an object, usually an animal or plant, serving as a family or clan emblem, or, more often, a carved or painted representation, often in the form of a pole fashioned from a tree trunk and carved with figures representing one’s ancestors (also, a family or clan so represented); by extension, any emblem or symbol tuckahoe (Powhatan): a type of plant with an edible root, or the edible part of a type of fungus tullibee (Ojibwe): any one of several types of whitefish wampum (Massachusett): beads of polished shells used as ceremonial gifts, money, or ornaments; also, slang for â€Å"money† wanigan (Ojibwa): a tracked or wheeled shelter towed by a tractor or mounted on a boat or raft wapiti Shawnee): another word for elk wickiup (Fox): a hut or shelter made of a rough frame of vegetation wigwam (Eastern Abenaki): a hut or shelter made of a rough frame of vegetation or hides woodchuck (Algonquian): a type of marmot (a small mammal); also called a groundhog Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? 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Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Begin the paper by identifying some of the basic aspects of Research

Begin the by identifying some of the basic aspects of interpersonal communication identified in Chapter 1 (you choose whic - Research Paper Example Basic Aspects of Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal skills have so many aspects but we will look into the main four aspects. One of its basic aspects is that they are inescapable. No one lacks interpersonal skills whether good or bad. The only time one can escape is them is by choosing not to communicate at all which is not possible. People communicate daily, consciously and subconsciously. Communication occurs not only through words but also through facial expressions, posture, tone voice, and gestures among others (Wood, 2013). A number of times you hear people talk about taking back their words or statements but in a real sense, the damage or good it meant to achieve has already been achieved and it is inevitable remains. Interpersonal skills are irreversible. The impact or effect made by a word, gesture, posture or any other communication channel cannot be reversed even when the person communicating says he takes back his words. Once communicated, it cannot be swallowed ba ck (Wood 2013). Interpersonal communication is also complicated. It does not matter whether one is using words, gestures, postures, facial expressions, or whatever channel to communicate, none of them is easy. This is so because of the variables that are involved. Theorists have it there is a minimum of six people involved in every communication; who the communicator thinks he is, who he thinks the other person is, who the communicator thinks the other person thinks he is, who the other person thinks he is, who the other person thinks the communicator is and who the other person thinks the communicator thinks he is. Another thing that complicates communication is that people only swap symbols that stand for ideas and not the ideas. In other words, no two people use the same gesture, word, facial expressions, or posture to mean exactly the same thing (wood, 2013). The last aspect of interpersonal skills is that it is contextual. Communication cannot happen in isolation. It therefore involves several contexts. One of the contexts of communication is the psychological context. This is who the communicator and the communicated are and what he brings to the interaction. It includes their desires, personality, values, and others. The situational context deals with the psychosocial area where the communication is taking place. A conversation in a hospital is different from one in a restaurant. Relational context involves one's reaction to the other person they are communicating with. Environmental context is concerned with the physical area where the communication is taking place. Examples of factors I this context are time, temperature, noise level, season among others. The last context is the cultural context. This one involves rules and behaviors learned that affect the interaction (Wood 2013). Self-Disclosure and Interpersonal Communication Any form of purposeful verbal or non-verbal communication that exposes something about oneself to someone else is self-discl osure. It could be in the way we talk about ourselves, how we dress, and many other ways. Whether superficial or deep, self-disclosure does have both positive and negative effects of interpersonal relations. It has a positive effect for interpersonal relations if it works out well. However, when it does not turn